TSTP and RtI
The TST is an effective service delivery approach for ensuring alignment with the RtI recommendations. Several organizations have prepared overviews and suggestions for the implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI). These documents provide knowledge and technical assistance to help implement this successful approach to teaching all children, including students with disabilities. Below is an overview of the core concepts/principles, common attributes, and components of RtI:
Core Concepts / Principles
- Students receive high quality, research-based instruction and behavioral supports in their general education setting.
- General education instructors and school staff assume an active role in students' screening and assessment of academics and behavior.
- Continuous progress monitoring of student performance to pinpoint specific difficulties.
- Structured problem-solving process.
- School staff implements specific, research-based interventions to address the student's difficulties.
- School staff uses progress-monitoring data to determine interventions' effectiveness and to make any modifications as needed.
- Systematic assessment is completed of the fidelity or integrity with which instruction and interventions are implemented.
- Everyone is responsible for student learning in RtI.
- Multiple tiers of increasingly intense student interventions.
- Implementation of a differentiated curriculum.
- Instruction delivered by staff other than the classroom teacher.
- Varied duration, frequency, and time of interventions.
- Flexibility and fluidity.
- Categorical or non-categorical placement decisions based on severity levels.
- Professional development including beliefs and attitudes, knowledge, and skill.
- Identify, consolidate, supplement, and integrate resources from diverse funding sources to produce a sustainable infrastructure necessary to support RtI implementation.
Sources: Council of Administrators of Special Education (CASE); National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE), National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NCRLD)
Teacher Support Team Program Alignment with Recommendations for RtI
- Scientific, research-based, multi-tiered interventions focus specifically on individual student difficulties and are delivered with appropriate intensity in 10-week intervals. The TST model considers every child a general education child first and focuses on the entire student body.
- General education instructors and school staff assume an active role in students' screening, diagnostic assessment and continuous progress monitoring of academics and behavior. Meetings are scheduled regularly to discuss progress.
- Student performance provides data for more effective and earlier identification of students at-risk of learning failure. This data is housed in a specifically designed database for collecting and providing information of a student's assessment and intervention history. New students referred to the Teacher Support Team already have a data history to explore in looking for interventions appropriate to meeting their needs while additional information is collected.
- Structured and systematic problem-solving process includes identification, analysis of the problem, hypothesis as to why it is occurring, and development of a specific plan to address the difficulty in 10-week intervals.
- School staff implements specific, research-based interventions in a systematic way to assure timely and effective support. The programs are delivered and reviewed in cycles to assure that the duration, frequency, and time of intervention is appropriate to assure student success.
- Data is gathered and reviewed every ten weeks to determine an interventions' effectiveness and to make modifications as needed.
- Fidelity of the program implemented, and the staff members providing the program, is measured to assure programs are delivered as intended and with consistency.
- Attitudinal and belief systems embrace the philosophy that all children can and will learn. The relationship between RtI use and student achievement is articulated clearly. To assure sustainability, professional development and technical assistance are provided in an ongoing manner to assure that the models used translate research into practice, student failure into success.